How F1 engines make 1,000 hp


Present System 1 engines generate as much as 1,000 hp from simply 1.6 liters of displacement, and now Engineering Defined has video breaking down the small print that make that potential.

Technically, System 1 automobiles have “energy items,” not “engines,” because the 1.6-liter turbocharged V-6 is only one a part of a hybrid powertrain. Since 2014, F1 has mandated a setup that features the tiny 90-degree V-6 and two motor-generator items, the MGU-Okay (Motor Generator Unit-Kinetic) and MGU-H (Motor Generator Unit-Warmth).

Each motor-generator items harvest vitality, however in numerous methods. The MGU-H is spun by extra exhaust stream from the turbo that will usually be bled off by a wastegate, harvesting vitality that may be saved in a battery pack, used to spin the turbo when off throttle, or despatched on to the MGU-Okay. Connected to the crankshaft, the MGU-Okay can present as much as 160 hp to assist propel the automobile or regenerative braking to recuperate extra vitality.

2023 Formula 1 Bahrain Grand Prix

2023 System 1 Bahrain Grand Prix


With simply 160 hp supplied by the MGU-Okay, and solely briefly bursts when the battery pack is totally charged, the gasoline engine continues to be doing a lot of the work. It additionally has to do this with a restricted quantity of gas (as a result of F1 would not permit in-race refueling any extra) pumped from the gas cell at a stream fee dictated by the foundations. That fee—a most 100 kg/h—additionally signifies that whereas F1 permits engines to rev to fifteen,000 rpm, energy successfully peaks at 10,500 rpm, as a result of that is when engines hit that most fee.

Groups declare the gas utilized in F1 is just like pump gasoline, so they don’t seem to be getting a bonus there. F1 engines are identified to run far more effectively than typical road-car engines, nevertheless. Mercedes-AMG has claimed its engines have achieved greater than 50% thermal effectivity, that means at the least half the potential vitality within the gas they burn is definitely used to maneuver the automobile. That is the important thing to these massive energy numbers.

Contemplating that almost all road-car internal-combustion engines wrestle to attain 35% thermal effectivity, F1 engineers must make use of loads of methods. One is pre-chamber ignition—the usage of a smaller combustion chamber above the principle chamber—which permits for a leaner air-fuel combination that is ideally suited to F1’s fuel-flow limits. This function is not racing-specific; it was one of many options that made the unique Honda Civic’s CVCC engine so fuel-efficient, and it is at present utilized in Maserati’s 3.0-liter twin-turbo V-6

One other effectivity enhance is a rule that enables compression ratios of as much as 18:1. That is a lot greater than road-car engines, and whereas it is unknown whether or not groups are literally hitting that restrict, it leaves room for effectivity features. Increased compression ratios are extra environment friendly, and even with out operating all the way in which to an 18:1 ratio, F1 automobiles are doubtless operating greater compression ratios than street automobiles and reaping that profit.

The ultimate issue is turbo enhance. In street automobiles, excessive ranges of enhance assist small engines produce massive energy, but it surely will not be that straightforward in F1. F1 engines might run kind of enhance than some street automobiles (groups do not launch precise figures) relying on the air-fuel ratio, and that might additionally change primarily based on circuits, with extra enhance used at higher-altitude Mexico Metropolis, for instance.

Finally, it is the effectivity of the whole package deal that enables F1 energy items to get a lot energy from so little displacement. As famous within the video, in addition they do it with out some options which might be widespread on street automobiles, equivalent to variable valve timing. That is what makes trendy F1 energy items true technological marvels.

Take a look at the video above for a deeper dive on what makes F1 engines tick.


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